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engines: Paying for lower emissions

When it comes to meeting the constant changes from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission regulations, it appears that diesel engine manufacturers are ahead of the game.


October 30, 2008
By Canadian Rental Service

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Top: Subaru’s EX40 meets both CARB and EPA Tier 3 emission standards due to an OHC valve narrow-angle layout that enables the combustion chamber to function without a special catalyst. 
 Bottom: Case Construction Equipment’s CX75 minimum swing radius excavator has a Tier 4 Stage 1 certified Isuzu engine that delivers 54hp (40kW).
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When it comes to meeting the constant changes from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission regulations, it appears that diesel engine manufacturers are ahead of the game.

The Tier 4 regulations will virtually eliminate emissions from diesel engines for non-road engines and equipment which was the next step ahead for the EPA Tier 3 emission standards that took effect in 2006. This is a continuous process that will eventually see more changes until engines have reached near-zero emission levels.

Imagine the complexities that manufacturers must overcome to develop the technologies and re-tool their factories to plan for the changes that will take place years from now while implementing current regulations today.

The EPA has given the engine manufacturing industry ample time to make adjustments in order to be compliant and many manufacturers are currently introducing innovative solutions to meet the EPA regulations. But at what cost?

This is a huge engineering challenge for engine and equipment manufacturers that will result in costly re-designs that will require an enormous capital investment from the manufacturers.

For engine manufacturers who supply engines on a global basis, meeting all of these standards can be overwhelming. Only companies with the foresight to make the financial investments in research and development, as well as testing facilities, will be able to stay ahead of the continuing changes and demands put on this industry.

Does this mean shrinking profit margins for manufacturers or higher prices for rental operators?

Rental companies are very sophisticated purchasers who put strict demands on the equipment they purchase for rent to their customers. They have high expectations when it comes to reliability and performance and are constantly seeking ways to turn over equipment for newer equipment and still make a profit. If the new near-zero emission engines of the future come at a premium, rental operators will need to off-set these costs by transferring them to the customer.

However, if customers do not feel they are benefitting from the lower emission engines, this will result in a lack of customer acceptance of these new engines and the equipment they power. This could prompt rental companies to hold on to older, higher emitting engines and pre-buying less advanced engines before the newer near-zero emission engines are phased in.

On the other hand, there are benefits for rental operators who specify engines for equipment that meet not only today’s standards but future standards as well. They include lower operating fuel costs and maintenance costs, longer engine life and an engine with greater reliability. All these factors combine to create more profit margins for the rental operator.

85 per cent reduction in particulate matter

The Caterpillar Diesel Particulate Filter System for off-highway machines has earned a Level 3 conditional verification from the California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board. The verification formally recognizes the Caterpillar passive filter system as effective and reliable in achieving at least an 85 per cent reduction in particulate matter exhaust emissions. The system also meets the California 2009 regulation governing nitrogen dioxide emissions.

The verification covers wheeled machines with Tier 1, 2 and 3 engines in the 175hp to 300hp range. Caterpillar expects the verification to be extended to tracked machines and the horsepower range extended as more field test data are considered.

The Caterpillar diesel particulate filter system features a passive regeneration system to automatically remove particulate buildup. The filter requires no downtime to regenerate and no external heat source or fuel source.
Contact Caterpillar at: www.cat.com/EmmissionsSolutions

Engines for gen-sets
John Deere Power Systems (JDPS) has introduced three new engines for use in gen-set applications. The PowerTech E 9.0L and PowerTech 9.0L and 13.5L engines offer gen-set customers more powerful, cost effective solutions.

These compact, powerful engines are specifically targetted for the standby gen-set market, but they will also be offered to the prime power gen-set market. The PowerTech E 9.0L engine meets Tier 3 emissions regulations and has a maximum power rating of 315kW (422hp).

The company says before the introduction of the PowerTech E 9.0L, the only option for gen-set customers who needed a large displacement, Tier 3 compliant engine was the full-featured, high performance PowerTech Plus engine family. However, customers can now get a Tier 3 large displacement engine without cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT).

The Tier 3 PowerTech E 9.0L is new for the 60Hz gen-set market and features full authority electronic controls, a fixed geometry turbocharger and a high pressure common rail fuel system.

John Deere has two other new engines for the gen-set market: the Stage 2 PowerTech 9.0L and 13.5L. These engines are new for 50Hz gen-sets. Both engines offer power density and performance and are perfect for markets that require Stage 2 certifications. The PowerTech 9.0L engine has a maximum power rating of 304kW (408hp). Contact John Deere Power Systems at: www.JohnDeere.com/jdpower

Engine upgrades
Case Construction Equipment has announced several engine upgrades for 2008.

Tier 4 certified
The Case CX75 minimum swing radius excavator and CX80 excavator have been upgraded to Tier 4 Stage 1 certification. This upgrade delivers more efficient power and faster cycle times, featuring Tier 4 Stage 1 certified Isuzu engines that deliver 54hp (40kW).

Four Case compact excavators, the Case CX27B, CX31B, CX36B and CX50B, have been upgraded to Tier 4 certification. Featuring Tier 4 certified Yanmar engines, the Case CX B Series compact excavators range from 5566lb to 10,261lb (2520kg to 4660kg) and deliver from 21.3hp to 39.8hp (15.9kW to 29.3kW).

Tier 3 engine re-power
Case Construction Equipment has
re-powered the engine on its E Series compact wheel loaders with a 3.2L Tier 3 certified Case engine. Ideally suited for a variety of landscaping, industrial material handling and residential construction applications, the Case E Series compact wheel loaders deliver between 54hp and 82hp.

Family IV engines
Case Construction Equipment has upgraded two of its crawler dozer models. The Case 750L and 850L, which replace the 750K and 850K, feature Tier 3 certified, fuel efficient Case Family IV engines.

Powering the Case 750L dozer is a 4.5L, four cylinder electronic engine which delivers 84hp (63kW). The Case 850L dozer is now powered by a 6.7L, six cylinder electronic engine which provides 96hp (72 kW).

Clean burning
Case introduced its new 400 Series 3 line of compact track loaders which feature clean burning, Tier 3 certified engines, with increases in horsepower for all four models.

The 420CT and 445CT Series 3 models feature Case 3.2L turbocharged engines, while the 440CT and 450CT Series 3 models are powered by a 4.5L turbo-charged Case engine. In addition to delivering Tier 3 certification, these new engines provide improved torque which increases performance across the line.
Contact Case Construction Equipment at: www.casece.com

More power, easy starts
Subaru has introduced the EX40 overhead cam engine, now the largest model in its line of high performance air-cooled, four stroke EX Series engines. Delivering a maximum output of 14hp, the EX40 effectively opens up the EX Series to a new level of applications, including general construction equipment, power generators, compressors and small agricultural machinery. Utilizing chain-driven overhead cam (OHC) technology, the new engine offers more power, easier starting and quieter operation than competitive engines in its class.

OHC technology allows the EX40’s intake and exhaust valves to be positioned to offer lower resistance for the air/fuel mixture flow, thus optimizing engine performance. Designed with a highly efficient pent-roof combustion chamber, the EX40 is able to utilize a high compression ratio to produce higher power and torque. The EX40 meets both CARB and EPA Tier 3 emission standards, thanks in part to an OHC valve narrow-angle layout that enables the combustion chamber to function without a special catalyst. Enhanced cooling balance contributes to higher combustion efficiency, lowering fuel consumption.

Easier starts are another advantage of the EX40. An automatic decompression timing system reduces the required recoil pulling force by 30 to 40 percent when compared with overhead valve (OHV) engine designs. In conjunction with the optimized combustion chamber design, starts are fast and easy with no perceptible kickback. Contact Subaru Industrial Engines/Robin America at:
www.subarupower.com


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